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Research Articles

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Full-Length Articles

Pan, S. C., Dunlosky, J., Xu, K. M., and Ouwehand, K. (2024). Emerging and future directions in test-enhanced learning research. Educational Psychology Review. doi: 10.1007/s10648-024-09857-2.

Pan, S. C., and Carpenter, S. K. (2023). Prequestioning and pretesting effects: a review of empirical research, theoretical perspectives, and implications for educational practice. Educational Psychology Review. doi: 10.1007/s10648-023-09814-5.

Pan, S. C., and Rivers, M. L. (2023). Metacognitive awareness of the pretesting effect improves with self-regulation support. Memory & Cognition. doi: 10.3758/s13421-022-01392-1.

Gupta, M. W., Pan, S. C., and Rickard, T. C. (2023). Interaction between the testing and forward testing effects in the case of cued-recall: Implications for theory, individual difference studies, and application. Journal of Memory and Language. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2023.10447.

Pan, S. C., Zung, I., Imundo, M., Zhang, X., and Qiu, Y. (2022). User-generated digital flashcards yield better learning than pre-made flashcards. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. doi: 10.1037/mac0000083.

Carpenter, S. K., Pan, S. C., and Butler, A. C. (2022). The science of effective learning with a focus on spacing and retrieval practice. Nature Reviews Psychology. doi: 10.1038/s44159-022-00089-1.

Zung, I., Imundo, M., and Pan, S. C. (2022). How do college students use digital flashcards during self-regulated learning? Memory. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2022.2058553.

Pan, S. C., and Sana, F. (2021). Pretesting versus posttesting: Comparing the pedagogical benefits of errorful generation and retrieval practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. doi: 10.1037/xap0000345.

Pan, S. C., Rickard, T. C., and Bjork, R. A. (2021). Does spelling still matter -- and if so, how should it be taught? Perspectives from contemporary and historical research. Educational Psychology Review. doi: 10.1007/s10648-021-09611-y.

Samani, J., and Pan, S. C. (2021). Interleaved practice enhances memory and problem-solving ability in undergraduate physics. npj Science of Learning. doi: 10.1038/s41539-021-00110-x.

Rickard, T. C., Pan, S. C., and Gupta, M. W. (2021). Severe publication bias contributes to illusory sleep consolidation in the motor sequence learning literature. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition. doi: 10.1037/xlm0001090.

Gupta, M. W., Pan, S. C., and Rickard, T. C. (2021). Prior episodic learning and the efficacy of retrieval practice. Memory & Cognition. doi: 10.3758/s13421-021-01236-4.

Pan, S. C., Sana, F., Samani, J., Cooke, J., and Kim, J. A. (2020). Learning from errors: Students' and instructors' practices, attitudes, and beliefs. Memory. doi:10.1080/09658211.2020.1815790.

Pan, S. C., Sana, F., Schmitt, A. G., and Bjork, E. L. (2020). Pretesting reduces mind wandering and enhances learning during online lectures. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. doi: 10.1016/j.jarmac.2020.07.004.

Imundo, M. I., Pan, S. C., Bjork, E. L., and Bjork, R. A. (2020). Where and how to learn: The interactive effects of contextual variation, restudying, and retrieval practice for learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. doi: 10.1177/1747021820968483.

Brabec, J. A., Pan, S. C., Bjork, E. L., and Bjork, R. A. (2020). True-false testing on trial: Guilty as charged or falsely accused? Educational Psychology Review. doi: 10.1007/s10648-020-09546-w.

Rickard, T. C., and Pan, S. C. (2020). Test-enhanced learning for pairs and triplets: When and why does transfer occur? Memory & Cognition. doi: 10.3758/s13421-020-01048-y.

Pan, S. C., Cooke, J., Little, J., McDaniel, M. A., Foster, E. R., Connor, L. T., and Rickard, T. C. (2019). Quizzing on jargon terms enhances definition-focused but not conceptual exam performance. CBE — Life Sciences Education (online). doi: 10.1187/cbe.18-12-0248

Pan, S. C., Lovelett, J., Phun, V., and Rickard, T. C. (2019). The synergistic benefits of systematic and random interleaving for second language grammar learning. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition 8(4), 450-462. doi: 10.1016/j.jarmac.2019.07.004

Pan, S. C., Lovelett, J., Stoeckenius, D., and Rickard, T. C. (2019). Conditions of highly specific learning through cued recall. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 26, 634-640. doi: 10.3758/s13423-019-01593-x

Pan, S. C., Tajran, J., Lovelett, J., Osuna, J., and Rickard, T. C. (2018). Does interleaved practice enhance foreign language learning? Journal of Educational Psychology 111(7), 1172–1188. doi: 10.1037/edu0000336.

Pan, S. C., Hutter, S., D’Andrea, D., Unwalla, D., and Rickard, T. C. (2018). In search of transfer following cued recall practice: The case of biology concepts. Applied Cognitive Psychology 33(4), 629-645. doi: 10.1002/acp.3506.

Pan, S. C., and Rickard, T. C. (2018). Transfer of test-enhanced learning: Meta-analytic review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin 144(7), 710-756. doi: 10.1037/bul0000151

Pan, S. C., and Rickard, T. C. (2017). Does retrieval practice enhance learning and transfer relative to restudy for term-definition facts? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 23(3), 278-292. doi: 10.1037/xap0000124

Rickard, T. C., and Pan, S. C. (2017). A dual memory theory of the testing effect. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 25(3), 847-869. doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1298-4

Rickard, T. C., and Pan, S. C. (2017). Time for considering the possibility that sleep plays no unique role in motor memory consolidation. Psychological Bulletin 143(4), 454-458. doi: 10.1037/bul0000094

Pan, S. C., Gopal, A., and Rickard, T. C. (2016). Testing with feedback yields potent, but piecewise, learning of history and biology facts. Journal of Educational Psychology 108(4), 563-575. doi: 10.1037/edu0000074

Pan, S. C., Wong, C. M., Potter, Z. E., Mejia, J., and Rickard, T. C. (2016). Does test-enhanced learning transfer for triple associates? Memory & Cognition 44(1), 24-36. doi: 10.3758/s13421-015-0547-x

Pan, S. C., Rubin, B. R., and Rickard, T. C. (2015). Does testing with feedback improve adult spelling skills relative to copying and reading? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 21(4), 356-369. doi: 10.1037/xap0000062

Pan, S. C. and Rickard, T. C. (2015). Sleep and motor memory: Is there room for consolidation? Psychological Bulletin 141(4), 812-834. doi: 10.1037/bul0000009

Pan, S. C., Pashler, H., Potter, Z. E., and Rickard, T. C. (2015). Testing enhances learning across a range of episodic memory abilities. Journal of Memory and Language 83, 53-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2015.04.001

Jones, A. C., Wardlow, L., Pan, S. C., Zepeda, C., Heyman, G. D., Dunlosky, J., and Rickard, T. C. (2015). Beyond the rainbow: Retrieval practice leads to better learning than does rainbow writing. Educational Psychology Review 27(3), 385-400. doi: 10.1007/s10648-015-9330-6

Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceedings
Walker, D., Pan, S. C., Modir, S., and Rickard, T. C. (2014). Sleep enhancement of texture discrimination performance is dependent on training paradigm. Journal of Vision 14(10), 664. doi: 10.1167/14.10.664

Chapters and Instructional Guides

Pan, S. C., and Bjork, R. A. (forthcoming). Acquiring an accurate mental model of human learning: Toward an owner's manual. In A. Wagner & M. Kahana (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Memory, Volume II: Applications. To appear at:

Pan, S. C., Cooke, J. E., Little, J. L., and McDaniel, M. A. (forthcoming). Using online and clicker quizzes to learn scientific and technical jargon. In C. Overson, C. Hakala, L. Kordonowy, and V. Benassi (Eds.), In their own words: What scholars want you to know about why and how to apply the science of learning in your academic setting. Available at:

Pan, S. C., and Agarwal, P. K. (2018). Retrieval practice and transfer of learning: Fostering student application of knowledge. Teacher and student practice guide. Available at:

Other Scientific Publications

Pan, S. C., and Samani, J. (November 2021). Shuffling homework problems helps college students learn introductory physics. npj Science of Learning. Available at:

Pan, S. C. (January 2019). A touch to remember. In G. Cook (Ed.), Scientific American. Available at:

Pan, S. C. (December 2018). Investigations of retrieval practice and transfer of learning for rearranged stimulus-response elements [Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego]. Available at:

Pan, S. C. (October 2016). Sleep between sessions: a study power move. In G. Cook (Ed.), Scientific American. Available at:

Pan, S. C. (August 2015). The interleaving effect: mixing it up boosts learning. In G. Cook (Ed.), Scientific American. Available at:


For details about recent talks and conference presentations, please see this list.